Open Conference Systems, Language and Language Teaching Conference 2020

Font Size: 
Christianus I Wayan Eka Budiartha

Last modified: 2020-10-26


Writing as a productive skill in English has been valued greatly, especially in academic context. The process approach was started to be considered when teaching writing as it offers a more meaningful learning. Furthermore, the approach makes room for collaborative learning between students and teachers. For EFL students whose first language is not English, mastering writing skills could be more challenging. To address the issues, the idea of a writing center has been adapted in a higher educational level for students who want to improve their writing. The study was conducted by using a qualitative descriptive approach and its data collection was carried out through a number of instruments to fulfill the triangulation method of a qualitative approach such as observation, semi-structured interview, survey, and corpus-based research. From the eight purposive sampling of tutees and the four tutors, the study concluded that EFL students are not familiar with the process of writing, so many of them consider having support merely on revising their essay draft. Even though collaborative writing was successfully carried out, but EFL students need to improve their independent study to follow up the discussion they had with the tutors.


collaborative learning, EFL, process approach, writing center


Abas, I., & Abd Aziz, N. H. (2016). Indonesian EFL Students’ Perspective on

Writing Process: A Pilot Study (Vol. 7).

Al Fadda, H. (2012). Difficulties in Academic Writing: From the Perspective of King

Saud University Postgraduate Students. English Language Teaching, 5(3).

An Introduction to Higher Education Writing Centres_2.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Ariyanti, A. (2016). The Teaching of EFL Writing in Indonesia. Dinamika Ilmu,

16(2), 263.

Arrand, K. (2014). Peer tutoring. Journal of Pedagogic Development, 4(1).

Barnett, R. W., & Blumner, J. S. (1999). Writing Centers and Writing Across the

Curriculum Programs: Building Interdisciplinary Partnerships. Greenwood

Publishing Group.

Bitchener, J., Young, S., & Cameron, D. (2005). The effect of different types of

corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of Second Language

Writing, 14(3), 191–205.

Bruffee, K. A. (1984). Collaborative Learning and the “Conversation of Mankind.”

College English, 46(7), 635.

Cahyono, B. Y. (2004). Research studies in second language writing and in

contrastive rhetoric. K@ Ta, 3(1), 39–52.

Chokwe, J. M. (2015). Students’ and tutors’ perceptions of feedback on academic

essays in an open and distance learning context. Open Praxis, 7(1).

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating

quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed). Boston: Pearson.

Dillenbourg, P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? Oxford:


Eodice, M. (2005). Centers Association, which is an Affiliate of the National Council

of Teachers of.

Faraj, A. K. A. (2015). Scaffolding EFL Students’ Writing through the Writing

Process Approach. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(13), 131–141.

Giridharan, B., & Robson, A. (2011). Identifying gaps in academic writing of ESL

students. In Enhancing Learning: Teaching and learning conference 2011

proceedings. Enhancing Learning: Teaching and Learning Conference 2011,

Curtin University Sarawak.

Harris, M. (1995). Talking in the Middle: Why Writers Need Writing Tutors. College

English, 57(1), 27.

Javed, M., Juan, W. X., & Nazli, S. (2013). A Study of Students’ Assessment in

Writing Skills of the English Language. Online Submission, 6(2), 129–144.

Kim, H., Sefcik, J. S., & Bradway, C. (2017). Characteristics of Qualitative

Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review. Research in Nursing & Health,

40(1), 23–42.

Moussu, L. (2013). Let’s talk! ESL students’ needs and writing centre philosophy.

TESL Canada Journal, 30(2), 55.

Mukminin, A., Ali, R. M., & Ashari, M. J. F. (2015). Voices from within: Student

teachers’ experiences in English academic writing socialization at one

Indonesian teacher training program. The Qualitative Report, 20(9), 1394

Mutimani, M. M. (2016). Academic writing in English: challenges experienced by

Bachelor of Education primary level students at the University of Namibia,

Katima Mulilo campus (PhD Thesis). University of Namibia.

Nation, P. (2007). The Four Strands. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching,

1(1), 2–13.

Nordlof, J. (2014). Vygotsky, scaffolding, and the role of theory in writing center

work. The Writing Center Journal, 45–64.

North, S. M. (1982). Training Tutors to Talk about Writing. College Composition and

Communication, 33(4), 434.

North, S. M. (1984). The Idea of a Writing Center. College English, 46(5), 433.

Onozawa, C. (2010). A study of the process writing approach: A suggestion for an

eclectic writing approach.

Pemberton, M. A., & Kinkead, J. A. (Eds.). (2003). The center will hold: critical

perspectives on writing center scholarship. Logan: Utah State University


Puntambekar, S., & Hubscher, R. (2005). Tools for scaffolding students in a complex

learning environment: What have we gained and what have we missed?

Educational Psychologist, 40(1), 1–12.

Qualitative descriptive research: An acceptable design. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17,

2018, from


Riedner, R., O’Sullivan, Í., & Farrell, A. (2015). An introduction to writing in the

disciplines (WID) curriculum, AISHE practice guide 5.

Robinson, H. M. (2009). Writing center philosophy and the end of basic writing:

Motivation at the site of remediation and discovery. Journal of Basic Writing,


Thonus, T. (2003). Serving generation 1.5 learners in the university writing center.

TESOL Journal, 12(1), 17–24.

Van Boxtel, C., Van der Linden, J., & Kanselaar, G. (2000). Collaborative learning

tasks and the elaboration of conceptual knowledge. Learning and Instruction,

10(4), 311–330.

Zhou, D. (2015). An Empirical Study on the Application of Process Approach in

Non-English Majors’ Writing. English Language Teaching, 8(3).